TOKYO -- Toyota Motor has endured two massive waves of U.S.-Japan trade friction. The first came in the 1980s and was the result of two oil crises from the previous decade. Smaller, more fuel-efficient Japanese cars became popular in the U.S.
The second came in the 1990s, when U.S. automakers, then known as "The Big Three," got mired in a downturn. Their Japanese rivals made for easy targets. This led to contentious negotiations known as the Japan-U.S. Strategic Impediment Initiative.