ArrowArtboardCreated with Sketch.Title ChevronCrossEye IconIcon FacebookIcon LinkedinIcon Mail ContactPath LayerIcon MailMenu BurgerPositive ArrowIcon PrintIcon SearchSite TitleTitle ChevronIcon Twitter

Emperor Akihito's lonely struggle to reform Japan's imperial system

Monarch's desire for democratic change makes him the rightful national symbol

Emperor Akihito of Japan has a complicated retirement plan. A government-appointed advisory panel of business and scholarly figures will shortly begin final deliberations on whether -- and how -- he should abdicate. The tenor of the interim report issued in January suggests that the panel will unanimously recommend that the 83-year-old monarch be permitted to step down -- but only as a one-off exception, which would not apply to future emperors. A special bill will then be submitted to the Diet, which could go into effect in the summer. An imperial abdication -- a first in modern times -- would thus be achieved, "speedily" and "prudently," in the words of one panel member. The idea of exceptional permission is intended to save the trouble of altering the Imperial House Law which stipulates, among other things, a lifetime reign for the emperor, and a male succession line.

Superficially, the emperor seems to be getting what he deserves -- the right to retire, after years of service to the nation as its symbol and its highest-ranking ambassador. But the suggested one-time deal cannot be a happy outcome for him. He has made it publicly clear that his wish is not to find an easy way out for himself, but to humanize the imperial system for later generations.

To that end, he wants the people of Japan to engage in a candid debate about abdication, and perhaps more broadly, rules governing the imperial succession as well as the meaning of the Imperial House in contemporary Japanese society.

The most ironic aspect of the unfolding abdication saga is that Emperor Akihito, the very embodiment of Japan's inherently undemocratic institution, is shown to be its most valiant democracy advocate: An earnest student who has absorbed the ideals of the immediate postwar era and who, belying his mild demeanor, is unafraid to stir up a sensitive debate. Frustratingly for him, however, the rest of the nation would prefer to let sleeping dogs lie, for various reasons.

The people in power, represented by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his rightwing supporters, are determined to maintain the status quo. The opposition, most notably the Democratic Party, is too ineffective to counter Abe's governing majority.

Ordinary citizens are not sure how to openly debate this issue, and understandably so. From the time of the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the state has made sure that citizens cannot casually discuss the ancient Imperial House, having reinvigorated it from its centuries-old dormancy and reinvented it as the crux of modern Japanese nationalism.

Despite its tainted history as the rallying point of Japan's wartime ultranationalism, and despite the post-World War II demotion of the present emperor's father Emperor Hirohito from a godly status to that of a mere mortal, national deference for the institution has survived. This was largely enabled by the U.S. Cold War policy of rebuilding a stable Japan as the most important ally in East Asia, with the emperor system providing a spiritual continuity for the vanquished nation.

All this creates an awkward situation for Emperor Akihito, whose lonely quest began last August. Back then he explained, in a rare televised speech, that he could no longer fulfill his official duties to his satisfaction. Beyond pleading his case of advancing age and fragile health, he indicated that it was time for Japan to reconsider the future of imperial succession. As a public figure fundamentally constrained by the country's constitution to steer clear of politics, he put this case as forcefully as he could.

The emperor referred to the historical precedents of abdications in "our country's long history of imperial rulers," hoping that Japanese emperors could retire with dignity, just as the Dutch queen, the Belgian king, or even the Pope have done in the recent past. His unmistakable message was that emperors, too, are first and foremost individuals, with human limitations, who age like everyone else.

Existing state

The speech appeared to be a public relations success. Most polls indicated that the majority of Japanese approved of altering the abdication law. Abe, a staunch nationalist obsessed with retaining the mystique of the protocol-shrouded imperial institution intact, responded by appointing the aforementioned advisory panel. By emphasizing that he was taking swift action to enable the one-time bill, he was trying to avoid any chances for permanent reforms, involving not only the abdication question but also the female succession question, a likely development as Akihito's elder son and heir, Naruhito, has just one child, a daughter.

In fact Japan has had female sovereigns before, the first in the 6th century and the last in the late 18th century. Both males and females with a patrilineal claim to ancient emperors could succeed, though this also meant that children of empresses would not have any claim to the throne as descendants from the maternal line. It was only with the Meiji Restoration, following the Prussian example, that females ceased to be potential heirs. Further rules were instituted after World War II to sever many minor imperial relatives from the Imperial House, mainly to downsize its scale in democratic times.

Still, Abe clearly finds the prospect of a female heir of any kind so repugnant that he has admitted to being amenable to reinstating male members of those former imperial families, long stripped of their titles, to supplement the ever-shrinking number of people in line.

What does the emperor make of all this? It is usually difficult to know what his personal thoughts are, as his position requires him not to voice controversial opinions. And yet the public has been kept surprisingly well informed of late. This is thanks to Mototsugu Akashi, a retired business executive and the emperor's classmate from nursery school, his equestrian companion, and in this particular episode, his confidant and public defender. Since last summer's imperial speech, Akashi has spoken selectively to the media as a concerned friend, adamantly insisting that the emperor wants permanent reform. His remark last December was especially poignant: "In observing the proceedings of the advisory panel," Akashi noted, its members were "proffering opinions that are different from the public's" and moreover "wholly removed from the emperor's." 

Akashi quite correctly pointed out that public opinion differs from the government's official view. As recently as late January, Kyodo News polls said that 63.3% of respondents still preferred a permanent solution allowing future emperors to abdicate, while 26.9% favored the government's one-off legislation. It is equally true however that nobody is standing up for the emperor beyond responding sympathetically in polls. Neither are the mainstream media spearheading a critical debate, seemingly reluctant to upset the increasingly powerful government.

But is not standing up for one's beliefs, in an open and nonviolent manner, what democracy is all about? Emperor Akihito has consistently tried to square his public role with his democratic principles, instilled from boyhood, most notably by his American Quaker tutor Elizabeth Vining. She taught him the valuable lesson, again in the words of his confidante, Akashi: "Man must act on his own will."

There is no doubt that the emperor has done his best. He chose his own spouse, a commoner. He then took on more and more official duties over the years, without any prodding, tirelessly travelling with Empress Michiko, and readily reaching out to people in need. He also made it clear that the Japanese need to reflect on their aggressive past. His persistence, industry and compassion are admirable, even though admiration is probably not exactly what he is after.

He wants to "stand by the people, listen to their voices, and be close to them in their thoughts," as he noted in his speech last summer. It is his faith in people and his willingness to stand up for his beliefs that qualify him, far more than an accident of birth, as the rightful national symbol of democratic Japan.

Eri Hotta is author of "Japan 1941: Countdown to Infamy" (Alfred A. Knopf, 2013); the Japanese edition "1941 -- Ketsuinaki Kaisen" (Jimbun Shoin, 2016) won 2016's Asia Pacific Award Special Prize.

Sponsored Content

About Sponsored Content This content was commissioned by Nikkei's Global Business Bureau.

You have {{numberArticlesLeft}} free article{{numberArticlesLeft-plural}} left this monthThis is your last free article this month

Stay ahead with our exclusives on Asia;
the most dynamic market in the world.

Stay ahead with our exclusives on Asia

Get trusted insights from experts within Asia itself.

Get trusted insights from experts
within Asia itself.

Get Unlimited access

You have {{numberArticlesLeft}} free article{{numberArticlesLeft-plural}} left this month

This is your last free article this month

Stay ahead with our exclusives on Asia; the most
dynamic market in the world

Get trusted insights from experts
within Asia itself.

Try 3 months for $9

Offer ends January 31st

Your trial period has expired

You need a subscription to...

  • Read all stories with unlimited access
  • Use our mobile and tablet apps
See all offers and subscribe

Your full access to the Nikkei Asian Review has expired

You need a subscription to:

  • Read all stories with unlimited access
  • Use our mobile and tablet apps
See all offers
NAR on print phone, device, and tablet media