Nikkei Asia is tracking the spread of the coronavirus that was first detected in the central Chinese city of Wuhan.
Cumulative global cases have reached 134,519,292, according to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. The worldwide death toll has hit 2,914,285.
For more information about the spread of COVID-19 and the progress of vaccination around the world, please see our interactive charts and maps.
Saturday, April 10 (Tokyo time)
10:22 a.m. Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech ask U.S. regulators to allow the emergency use of their vaccine among 12- to 15-year-olds. The vaccine is currently authorized for emergency use in the United States for people aged 16 and up.
Friday, April 9
11:44 p.m. Thailand announces a ban on nightlife venues for two weeks in 41 provinces as part of coronavirus containment measures. Areas covered by the ban include sites of outbreaks and popular tourist destinations, such as Phuket.
8:49 p.m. Cambodia reports a daily record 576 new cases on Friday as infections spike from an outbreak first detected in late February.
The government has restricted travel within the country, banned large gatherings and imposed a curfew in Phnom Penh for two weeks from April 1.
7:35 p.m. Hong Kong postpones orders for 7.5 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine, which had been scheduled to be delivered in the second half of the year.
"We believe that AstraZeneca vaccines will not need to be supplied to Hong Kong this year, so as not to cause a waste when the vaccine is still in short supply globally," says Health Secretary Sophia Chan.
The decision comes amid mounting concerns over potential links between the AstraZeneca shot and rare cases of blood clots.
6:10 p.m. Johnson & Johnson is in talks with India's government to begin a clinical trial of its single-dose COVID-19 vaccine in the country, the company says. The U.S. drugmaker's vaccine is currently approved for use in the U.S., the European Union and other nations, including Thailand and South Africa. The news comes as some parts of India face a shortage of vaccines.
5:30 p.m. The Philippines reports 401 new coronavirus deaths, the highest single-day spike in fatalities since the start of the pandemic, and 12,225 additional infections. Total confirmed cases rose to 840,554, while deaths reached 14,520. A total of 213 cases previously tagged as recoveries were reclassified as deaths after final validation.
4:30 p.m. Indonesia is in talks with China to secure up to 100 million vaccine doses to cover delays in receiving AstraZeneca shots. The country is expecting to receive 20 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine via a bilateral deal in 2021, instead of the initially agreed upon 50 million. The remaining 30 million were due to be shipped by the second quarter of 2022.
3:40 p.m. Tokyo 2020 President Seiko Hashimoto says Olympic organizers are in talks with the International Swimming Federation to hold diving and artistic swimming qualifiers for the Olympics as originally planned. The federation, known as FINA, said last week it was reviewing the status of both events, as well as a marathon swimming qualifier.
2:30 p.m. Thailand reports 559 cases and one death as the country deals with rising infections after successfully tackling earlier outbreaks. The new cases bring the country total to 30,869 with 96 deaths.
1:35 p.m. Total cases in India top 13 million as the country reports its highest single-day spike with 131,968 new infections in the last 24 hours. This is the fourth time in five days that daily cases crossed 100,000. Fatalities jumped by 780 to 167,642.
12:40 p.m. Australia will purchase another 20 million doses of Pfizer's vaccine, Prime Minister Scott Morrison says. On Thursday, Australia recommended that people under 50 be inoculated with the Pfizer vaccine rather than with AstraZeneca's, citing rare blood clots. Last year, the country purchased 20 million doses of the Pfizer vaccine but needs more so it can follow its latest advice.
10:20 a.m. South Korean Prime Minister Chung Sye-kyun says the country will extend current social distancing rules for three more weeks, prohibiting private meetings among five or more people. The country reported 671 new cases, down from 700 a day ago. Total infections are at 108,269, with 1,764 deaths.
9:50 a.m. China reports 21 cases for Thursday, down from 24 a day earlier. Eight of the new cases were local infections, all of which were reported in southwestern Yunnan Province. The city of Ruili bordering Myanmar is dealing with a new cluster and has since implemented home quarantine, vaccination drives and other measures to contain the outbreak.
9:00 a.m. Japan is set to ask Tokyo and two other prefectures to impose stronger anti-COVID-19 measures amid surging infections. The measures are expected to include asking restaurants and bars to close at 8:00 p.m., an hour earlier than now. The measures will take effect on Monday and last through May 5 for Kyoto and Okinawa prefectures, and May 11 for Tokyo.
8:10 a.m. HSBC and the Asian Development Bank will provide a combined $300 million in financing to help Asia's supply chains boost manufacturing capacity for vaccines, the two lenders say. The initiative builds on a risk-sharing scheme the banks launched in July to help fund suppliers of personal protective equipment as they and vaccine makers race to meet mounting global demand. Leveraging ADB's sovereign-level credit rating will allow private-sector lenders such as HSBC to lend more easily to those supplying vaccines, HSBC said.
5:10 a.m. The U.S. government will allocate 85% fewer Johnson & Johnson doses to states next week, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, due to uneven production related in part to problems at a Baltimore manufacturing plant. Allocations will fall to 785,500 doses from 4.95 million this week.
3:10 a.m. Portugal temporarily suspends use of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine for those aged under 60 amid concerns over possible links between the shot and very rare cases of blood clots. Earlier, Spain said it will continue vaccinating 60 to 65-year-olds with AstraZeneca's coronavirus shot before proceeding to the next priority group of 66 to 69-year-olds.
2:39 a.m. Russia calls on Slovakia to return hundreds of thousands of doses of the Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine, citing contract violations, in an escalating row between the two countries after a Slovak watchdog raised doubts about the shot, reports Reuters.
Thursday, April 8
11:42 p.m. The African Union's disease control body has dropped plans to secure AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines for its members from the Serum Institute of India, the world's biggest vaccine supplier, amid global shortfalls of the shot, reports Reuters.
The announcement is another blow to AstraZeneca, which has touted its shot as the vaccine for the world because it is the cheapest and easiest to store and transport, making it well suited to the needs of developing countries.
8:20 p.m. Indonesia has banned travel by land, air, water and rail during the Eid al-Fitr celebrations from May 6 to 17 to curb COVID-19 transmission, a spokeswoman for its transport ministry said on Thursday.
7:30 p.m. Japan's Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga on Thursday suggested he plans to designate Tokyo for stronger measures to combat COVID-19 amid a rise in infections and mounting pressure on hospitals in the capital. Suga told reporters he would consider whether more prefectures should be placed under a quasi-state of emergency and would make a formal decision after hearing from a panel of experts on Friday.
6:00 p.m. Indonesia is in talks with China on getting as many as 100 million COVID-19 vaccine doses to plug a gap in deliveries after delays in the arrivals of AstraZeneca shots, Health Minister Budi Gunadi Sadikin said on Wednesday.
5:00 p.m. The Philippine economy shrank by 9.6% last year, the Philippine Statistics Authority said on Thursday, revising the figure from an initial estimate of a 9.5% contraction, which already was the worst slump on a yearly basis on record.
4:30 p.m. This year's French Open tennis tournament has been postponed by a week and will begin on May 30 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the French Tennis Federation said on Thursday.
3:40 p.m. Thailand is considering closing entertainment venues in Bangkok and 40 provinces, its COVID-19 taskforce says as authorities rush to tackle a new wave of coronavirus cases amid the arrival of a highly contagious variant.
3:35 p.m. Uniqlo owner Fast Retailing posts an operating profit of 167.9 billion yen ($1.5 billion) for the first half of this fiscal year, up 23% from a year earlier.
3:15 p.m. The Philippines temporarily suspends the use of AstraZeneca jabs for people under 60, following reports of "rare cases of blood clots with low platelets detected in some individuals inoculated with the vaccine," the country's health department says.
2:00 p.m. Tokyo Gov. Yuriko Koike says she will ask the central government to take stronger measures to combat the pandemic under a quasi-state of emergency as worries increase about surging infections in the capital. These may include asking people to stay close to home during the Golden Week holidays from late April, and could also see closing times for restaurants and bars brought forward one hour from 9 p.m.
1:45 p.m. Thailand reports 405 cases but no new fatalities, bringing the country total to 30,310 with 95 deaths.
1:30 p.m. India reports 126,789 cases in the last 24 hours -- the country's biggest daily spike and the third time this week that infections topped 100,000 -- bringing the country total to 12.93 million. Deaths rose by 685 to 166,862. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Narendra Modi receives the second dose of a vaccine, tweeting after the jab: "Vaccination is among the few ways we have to defeat the virus. If you are eligible for the vaccine, get your shot soon."
12:50 p.m. Indonesia says it will receive 20 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine in 2021 instead of an expected 50 million doses. The remaining 30 million doses will be shipped in 2022, according to a briefing in parliament.
12:45 p.m. German infections rise by 20,407 to 2,930,852, according to data from the Robert Koch Institute.
12:39 p.m. Kyoto University Hospital has transplanted lung tissue from living persons to a patient suffering from serious COVID-19 pneumonia, in the world's first living-donor lung transplant to a novel coronavirus patient, according to the hospital in a Thursday announcement.
12:35 p.m. Thailand consumer confidence dropped in March, hit by surging infections and a slow economic recovery, according to a survey. The consumer index compiled by the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce fell to 48.5 in March from 49.4 the previous month.
12:30 p.m. New Zealand temporarily suspends entry for all travelers from India, including its own citizens, for about two weeks following a high number of infected individuals arriving from India. New Zealand has so far today recorded 23 cases at its border, of which 17 were from India. "We are temporarily suspending entry into New Zealand for travelers from India," Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said in a news conference.
11:50 a.m. The top Communist Party official of a city in China's Yunnan Province was sacked due to what the provincial government called a "serious dereliction of duty" in failing to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks.
11:40 a.m. Japanese stocks fall as a spike in domestic cases and possible restrictions on economic activity prompt investors to lock in profits.
10:00 a.m. China reports 24 cases for Wednesday, up from 12 a day earlier.
9:35 a.m. South Korea reports 700 new cases for Wednesday, the highest daily figure since early January.
9:15 a.m. Australia has no current plan to alter the rollout of AstraZeneca's vaccine, Prime Minister Scott Morrison says. The comment came after Europe's drug regulator found possible links between rare blood clots and the vaccine. "There is nothing to suggest at this stage that there would be any change, but we will update further if there is any change to that," Morrison tells reporters.
4:39 a.m. Italy will from now on recommend the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine only for people over aged 60, the country's top health adviser said after the European regulator found possible links between the vaccine and rare cases of blood clots, reports Reuters.
3:29 a.m. The U.S. Olympic Paralympic Committee will help athletes find a COVID-19 vaccine but will not require them to get a shot to compete at the Tokyo Summer Games, says CEO Sarah Hirshland.
2:03 a.m. The highly contagious variant of COVID-19 first discovered in the U.K. has become the most common strain of the virus in the U.S. as cases continue to climb, says Dr. Rochelle Walensky, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The strain, known as B.1.1.7, was identified in Britain last fall and has since been detected in 52 jurisdictions in the U.S.
1:15 a.m. Carnival may shift home ports of its cruise ships to other parts of the world if a ban on sailing from the U.S. is not lifted, says CEO Arnold Donald. Cruise ships in the U.S. remain under a "no-sail order," and Carnival has said recent guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on resuming voyages, including ensuring all passengers are vaccinated, are "largely unworkable."
Wednesday, April 7
7:00 p.m. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte cancels his weekly national televised address due to an increase in active cases of COVID-19 among his staff, including some of his security detail, government officials say. The Philippines is battling one of the worst outbreaks in Asia, with hospitals in the capital overwhelmed with record daily infections and authorities facing delays in delivery of COVID-19 vaccines.
6:00 p.m. Thailand has detected 24 cases of the coronavirus variant B.1.1.7 first detected in Britain, a virologist says, its first reported domestic transmission of the highly contagious variant. "This variant is very viral and can spread 1.7 times faster than the usual strain," Yong Poovorawan, a senior virologist from Chulalongkorn University, told a Health Ministry briefing.
4:10 p.m. Tokyo Gov. Yuriko Koike says the metropolitan government will prepare a request that the central government designate the capital an area requiring stronger measures against the pandemic, based on a revised law that took effect in February. The designation would allow the government to fine businesses that do not heed operating-hour restrictions. Tokyo reported 555 new infections on Wednesday, up from 399 a day earlier.
4:00 p.m. Osaka Gov. Hirofumi Yoshimura says he will not allow Olympic torchbearers to run on any of the prefecture's public roads next week, when the relay is scheduled to cut through the prefecture. Yoshimura blamed a surge in coronavirus infections in effectively canceling Osaka's legs of the relay. Earlier in the day, Osaka declared a state of medical emergency due to a strained health services sector that is dealing with a nearly 70% hospital bed occupancy rate for those in serious condition.
3:45 p.m. Britain begins rolling out Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine in Wales and expects to be using it in the rest of the United Kingdom in the coming days in a boost to the country's health system, which has been making do with less-than-robust vaccine supplies. Moderna's will become the third vaccine to be used in Britain, after the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer jabs. It comes as AstraZeneca supplies start to taper due to manufacturing issues, including at a site in India.
3:30 p.m. Taiwan worked with other democracies to help its diplomatic ally Paraguay get COVID-19 vaccines after China put pressure on the South American country to ditch Taipei in exchange for shots, and India stepped in to help, Taiwan's foreign minister says. Taiwan has formal ties with only 15 countries, and Beijing, which asserts that the island does not have the right to diplomatic recognition, has stepped up efforts to coax them away.
3:30 p.m. South Korea's Ministry of Food and Drug Safety grants final approval for the use of Johnson & Johnson's vaccine, after a panel of experts ruled the single-dose treatment was safe and effective. J&J is the third COVID-19 vaccine maker to be authorized in the country, after AstraZeneca and Pfizer, both of which require two doses.
2:25 p.m. Osaka declares a state of medical emergency, citing a strain on health services as the hospital bed occupancy rate for those in serious condition nears 70%. The prefecture is set to report more than 800 cases -- a new single-day record. The declaration is largely symbolic, aimed at raising public awareness. Osaka reported 719 cases on Tuesday, more than Tokyo's 399.
1:14 p.m. India records a record high of 115,736 cases in the last 24 hours -- the second time this month it has seen over 100,000 cases in a single day -- bringing the country total to 12.8 million. Fatalities jumped by 630 to 166,177.
10:20 a.m. China reports 12 cases for Tuesday, down from 24 a day earlier. Two of the cases were local infections. Both were in the city of Ruili in southwestern Yunnan Province bordering Myanmar, where a new cluster emerged last week.
10:04 a.m. South Korea's daily cases hit a three-month high of 668, up from 478 a day earlier, bringing the country total to 106,898 with 1,756 deaths.
9:30 a.m. Australia has asked the European Union to allow exports of the entire 3.8 million vaccine doses the country pre-ordered, Prime Minister Scott Morrison says, after the European Union denied blocking supplies. Australia has blamed the delay of 3.1 million AstraZeneca doses that were scheduled to be delivered by the end of March for causing its vaccination program to fall behind schedule.
5:00 a.m. U.S. President Joe Biden has moved up the COVID-19 vaccine eligibility target for all American adults to April 19 but warns that with new variants spreading "we're still in a life-and-death race." Biden directed states to widen vaccine eligibility to people 18 or older two weeks earlier than the May 1 deadline he had previously announced.
2:30 a.m. The World Health Organization expects there will be no reason to change its assessment that the benefits of the AstraZeneca vaccine outweigh risks, its regulatory director says. The WHO, alongside European and other regulators, is closely studying the latest data in light of reports of blood clots among some of those who have received injections of the vaccine, said Rogerio Gaspar, WHO director of regulation and prequalification.
Tuesday, April 6
9:00 p.m. India's capital New Delhi imposes a nighttime curfew until April 30 as much of the country struggles to contain a second surge in infections. The next four weeks will be "very, very critical," senior government health official Vinod Kumar Paul said, warning that the virus is now spreading much faster than it did in 2020.
6:00 p.m. The Philippines records 382 COVID-19 deaths, the largest single-day increase in casualties, after previously unreported fatalities were updated to the tally. Total confirmed cases have increased to 812,760, after 9,373 infections were reported on Tuesday. Deaths have reached 13,817. "There were 341 deaths prior to April 2021 that went unreported," the health ministry said.
3:30 p.m. Air New Zealand and Qantas Airways say they will ramp up flights between Australia and New Zealand to at least 70% of pre-pandemic levels once a two-way quarantine-free travel bubble opens on April 19. The busier schedule on the popular routes will help the airlines, now almost wholly reliant on their domestic markets, reduce their cash burn.
3:13 p.m. Tokyo reports 399 new cases, up from 249 a day earlier and moving the capital's seven-day average to 397, 9.8% higher than a week ago.
2:03 p.m. India reports 96,982 cases in the last 24 hours, a notch below the previous day's record spike of 103,558, bringing the country's total to over 12.68 million. Deaths rose by 446 to 165,547.
1:10 p.m. Quarantine-free travel between New Zealand and Australia will start on April 19, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern says. The conditions for starting to open up quarantine-free travel with Australia have been met, she said. "Our team's success in managing COVID-19 and keeping it out over the past 12 months now opens up the opportunity to reconnect with loved ones and resume trans-Tasman travel."
12:00 p.m. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga receives his second dose of the Pfizer vaccine in preparation for his visit to Washington next week to meet U.S. President Joe Biden. The two governments have agreed to take precautions to prevent the spread of the coronavirus during Suga's trip, with all members of the delegation and accompanying press being vaccinated beforehand.
11:45 a.m. The International Swimming Federation has cancelled the diving, artistic swimming and marathon swim Olympic qualifiers scheduled for this month and next month in Japan, according to the calendar section of its website. The federation had said on Friday it was reviewing its qualifiers planned for Japan and that it would make an announcement in the current week. It has yet to issue a new statement.
11:30 a.m. South Korea reports 478 new cases, compared with 473 a day ago, bringing the country's total infections to 105,752, with 1,752 deaths.
10:33 a.m. Asian economists have revised upward their growth forecasts for the economies of Singapore and Indonesia, thanks to quicker rollouts of coronavirus vaccines, a recent survey shows. The Japan Center for Economic Research and Nikkei conducted a quarterly survey from March 5 to 26, collecting a total of 40 answers from economists and analysts in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
10:00 a.m. China reports 24 new cases for Monday, down from 32 a day earlier. Of the new cases, 15 were local infections. All of the local infections were reported in Ruili, a city in the southwestern province of Yunnan that borders Myanmar. It has ordered home quarantine and restricted the flow of people after a new cluster emerged. Authorities said separately that 12 of the new COVID-19 cases in Ruili were previously asymptomatic patients.
9:20 a.m. Japan's household spending dropped for a third straight month in February, government data shows, as emergency curbs to prevent the spread of the coronavirus hurt consumption. Household spending dropped 6.6% in February from a year earlier, after a 6.1% decline in January. The decline was steeper than a median market forecast for a 5.3% fall.
9:00 a.m. North Korea's sports ministry says it will not participate in the Tokyo Olympics to protect its athletes amid the coronavirus pandemic. The decision was made at a meeting of North Korea's Olympic committee on March 25, the ministry said on its Joson Sports website.
2:40 a.m. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson says it is too soon to say whether international summer holidays can go ahead this year, a remark suggesting a planned reopening of outbound travel could be pushed back beyond May 17. "I wish I could give you more on that," Johnson said. "I know that people watching will want to know exactly what they can do from May 17, but we're not there yet."
Monday, April 5
11:46 p.m. India's Panacea Biotec agrees to produce 100 million doses of Russia's Sputnik V vaccine annually, according to the Russian marketer of the shots. The Russian Direct Investment Fund did not indicate when production would begin.
8:13 p.m. Singapore will accept COVID-19 digital travel passes starting next month, becoming one of the first countries to adopt the initiative. The International Air Transport Association's mobile travel pass will be accepted in pre-departure screenings for travelers flying into Singapore, with a smartphone app showing digital certificates for coronavirus tests and vaccines.
3:50 p.m. U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson says everyone in the country will be able to take a COVID-19 test twice a week in a new drive to track the pandemic as the country reopens. Johnson, who is expected to confirm plans to relaunch international travel later on Monday, said the testing program would break the chain of transmission and spot asymptomatic cases.
3:15 p.m. Tokyo reports 249 cases, down from 355 a day earlier. The seven-day-average of new cases in the capital, however, edged up 9.6% from a week ago to 391.
2:00 p.m. India's factory activity grew at its weakest pace in seven months in March as renewed lockdowns to curtail a resurgence in COVID-19 cases dampened domestic demand and output, a private survey shows.
1:00 p.m. In a grim milestone, India reports 103,558 cases for the past 24 hours, its highest-ever jump, data from the health ministry shows. Total cases in India now stand at 12.59 million. Deaths jumped by 478, to 165,101.
11:50 a.m. Johnson & Johnson has filed its application for emergency use authorization of its single-shot vaccine in the Philippines, the country's Food and Drug Administration chief says. J&J's documents, submitted on Wednesday, are being evaluated, FDA Director General Rolando Enrique Domingo tells reporters. J&J is the seventh COVID-19 vaccine maker to seek approval in the Philippines.
11:00 a.m. South Korea reports 473 new cases, down from 543 a day ago and the first time in six days for the country to report fewer than 500 new cases. Total infections reach 105,752, with 1,748 deaths.
9:30 a.m. China reports 32 new cases for Sunday, up from 21 a day earlier and marking the highest daily total in more than two months. Of the new cases, 15 were local infections, all of which were reported in Yunnan Province where a new cluster was discovered near the border with Myanmar. The number of new asymptomatic cases, which China does not classify as confirmed cases, stood at 18, matching the total from a day earlier.
8:50 a.m. El Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele says China will donate 150,000 Sinovac doses to the country, on top of the 2 million Sinovac jabs his government already purchased." I received a letter from President Xi Jinping, where he informs me that he will donate 150,000 vaccines against COVID-19 to our country," Bukele wrote on Twitter. El Salvador began its immunization campaign with the AstraZeneca vaccine in February. In 2018, El Salvador severed ties with Taiwan in a switch to Beijing.
4:10 a.m. The U.S. has administered more than 165 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines nationwide as of Sunday morning and distributed nearly 208 million, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. The number of doses administrated increased by over 3 million from Saturday.
The agency says 106.2 million people have received at least one dose, while 61.4 million are fully vaccinated. The CDC tally includes two-dose inoculations from Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech as well as Johnson & Johnson's one-shot vaccine.
Sunday, April 4
9:11 p.m. India's richest state, Maharashtra, imposes stringent COVID-19 restrictions starting Monday after a rapid rise in infections, a state minister says. The state will shut malls, cinema halls, bars and restaurants from Monday evening and impose a complete lockdown on weekends, Nawab Malik tells reporters after a cabinet meeting.
2:06 p.m. Leicester City center back Caglar Soyuncu missed the team's 2-0 Premier League loss to Manchester City on Saturday because he tested positive for COVID-19 while playing for Turkey in the country's 2022 World Cup qualifiers, manager Brendan Rodgers said. Soyuncu, who played in Turkey's 3-3 draw with Latvia on Tuesday, is isolating in Turkey. The 24-year-old has made 16 league appearances for Leicester this season.
Saturday, April 3
10:26 p.m. Taiwan will receive its first batch of vaccines under the WHO-led COVAX program on Sunday, the island's health minister says. Nearly 200,000 doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine will be delivered.
7:30 p.m. Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte extends a strict lockdown in the capital region and adjacent provinces by at least one week to try to contain a renewed surge in coronavirus infections, his spokesman said on Saturday. The Philippines, which has the second-highest COVID-19 cases and deaths in Southeast Asia, reported 12,576 new coronavirus infections on Saturday, putting further strain on the health care system.
3:20 p.m. Australia will continue its inoculation program with AstraZeneca, health officials said on Saturday, after a blood clotting case raised concern about the safety of the vaccine.
To catch up on earlier developments, see the last edition of latest updates.